Types of cement

Types of cement

A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens as the cement dries and also reacts with carbon dioxide in the air dependently, and can bind other materials together. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment, and cement.

Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to be used in the presence of water.

Non-hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, and is attacked by some aggressive chemicals after setting.

Hydraulic cement is made by replacing some of the cement in a concrete mix with activated aluminium silcates, pozzolanas, such as fly ash, to activate cement setting in wet condition or underwater and further protects hardened concrete from chemical attack.

Portland cement

Portland cement is by far the most common type of cement in general use around the world. This cement is made by heating limestone with small quantities of other materials.  Portland cement is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and most non-specialty grout. The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural (load bearing) element. Portland cement may be grey or white.

Type of Portland Cement

    Ordinary Portland Cement (Type I)
    Modified Portland Cement
    Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Portland Cement (Type III)
    Quick Setting Cement
    Low Heat Portland Cement (Type IV)
    Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement (Type V)
    Water Repellent Portland Cement
    Water Proof Portland Cement
    High Alumina Cement
    Portland Slag Cement
    Air Entraining Portland Cement (Type I-A, II-A, III-A)
    Pozzolana Portland Cement
    Supersulphated Cement
    Masonry Cement
    Expansive Cement

Ordinary Portland Cement

It is used in general construction works. All other varieties of Cement are derived from this Cement.

Modified Portland Cement

This cement on setting develops less heat of generation than OPC.

It is best suited in hot climate for civil works construction.

Rapid Hardening or High Early Strength Cement

Gains strength faster than OPC. In 3 days develops 7 days strength of OPC with same water cement ratio.

Quick Setting Cement

  • Sets faster than OPC.
  • Used for concreting underwater and in running water.

Low Heat Cement

  • It has low lime content and less compressive strength.
  • Initial and final setting times nearly same as OPC.

Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement

  • Used for structures likely to be damaged by severe alkaline conditions like bridges, culverts, canal lining, siphons, etc.

Water Repellent Portland Cement

  • It is used in to check moisture penetration in basements etc.

Water Proof Portland cement

  • It is used for water retaining structure like tanks, reservoir, retaining walls, pool, dam etc

High Alumina Cement

  • Resists attack of chemicals, Sulphates, seawater, frost action and also fire. Useful in chemical plants and furnaces.

Portland Slag Cement

  • Suitable for marine works, mass concreting.
  • Due to low early strength, not suitable for RCC.

Air Entraining Cement

  • Concrete is more plastic, more workable, more resistant to freezing.

Portland Pozzolana Cement

  • Used in marine works and mass concreting.

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